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Assessment Scales

SMILES (Student Motivation in the Learning Environment Scales)

The Student Motivation in the Learning Environment Scales (SMILES) is a multidimensional instrument for measuring children’s and adolescents’ academic motivation and related constructs. The SMILES represents the collaborative scale development and validation effort of 24 members during 2010~2012. The Brain and Motivation Research Institute of Korea University has made it an important research agenda to continuously improve the psychometric quality of SMILES, so additional scales are currently being developed and will be uploaded to this webpage when ready. A detailed description of each scale can be found in the SMILES manual below.

Researchers are welcome to use SMILES for research purposes, provided that the following reference information is included:

Bong, M., Kim, S., Reeve, J., Lim, H. J., Lee, W., Ahn, H. S., Back, S. H., Cho, C., Chung, Y., Hwang, A., Jiang, Y., Kim, H. J., Kim, J. H., Lee, J., Lee, K. H., Lee, M., Lee, S. K., Lee, S. Y., No, U. K., Noh, A., Shin, J., Song, J., Won, S., & Woo, Y. (2012). The Student Motivation in the Learning Environment Scales (SMILES). Retrieved from Korea University, Brain and Motivation Research Institute website:
SMILES is a copyrighted instrument. Use of SMILES and any of its scales for purposes other than research, such as commercial purposes or diagnostic assessment of students, is strictly prohibited. Anyone who wants to use SMILES for purposes other than research should first obtain written permission from Mimi Bong, Sung-il Kim, and Johnmarshall Reeve at Korea University.